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New SAT Test Format

Revised SAT Test Format

Section Time Limit Questions Task
Reading 65 minutes 52 Read 5 passages from Science, Social Science,Novel and US Constitutional History and answer questions.
Writing 35 minutes 44 Read 4 passages from Science, Social Science,Humanities and Careers Constitutional History and answer questions..
Break 10 minutes ---- ----
Math 25 minutes 20 No Calculator Allowed (5 Grid-in)
Math-II 55 minutes 38 Calculator Allowed (8 Grid-in)
Essay (Optional) 50 minutes 1 Analysis of a given argument

Page Title

PUNCTUATION: Uses of Comma

Introductory Elements/Modifiers

A comma should follow a Prepositional Phrase (or Modifier) used as an Introductory Element

1. In 2017, Hyderabad Hub created about two million jobs.

2. Last year, Hyderabad Hub made $ 10,000 profit.

3. During 2010-2011, Hyderabad Hub trained 1500 manpower.

4. By 2020, Hyderabad Hub will have expanded all over India.

5. By the way, we will not be able to attend the meeting next week.

6. In fact, Hyderabad Hub is a global player in the test preparation.

7. By chance, I came across my grandfather in the bar.

Present Participial Phrases:

A comma should follow a Present Participial Phrase (or Modifier) used as an Introductory Element

1. Eating ice cream, I walked to school.

2. Watching the TV, Sid painted the portrait.

3. Driving at 90 mph, Byron reached London in two hours.

4. Shivering in the bitter cold, the old man lay on the roadside.

5. Removing his goggles, the actor bowed before the god man.

6. Standing in the queue for an hour, Myli fainted at the film theatre.

7. Having written a novel at 14, Alfie has become the youngest writer.

8. Having declared independence for India, the British left the country in 1947.

Past Participial Phrases:

A comma should follow a Past Participial Phrase (or Modifier) used as an Introductory Element

1. Lost a year ago, Alden's car could never be traced by the police.

2. Puzzled by the maid's rude behavior, Ruth decided to dismiss her and to hire a new one.

3. Born in a prison and raised in an orphanage, Stella Williams struggled perpetually to succeed as an actress.

4. Formerly known as Constantinople, Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the East and the West.

5 Designed by the Apple and manufactured all over the world, the iPhone was originally called 'Purple.'

Subordinate Clauses:

A comma should follow a Subordinate Clause used as an Introductory Element

1. A clause that cannot stand by itself is called Subordinate Clause.

2. A subordinate clause begins with a Subordinator

List of Subordinators:

After, Although, Because, If, In case, In order to, That, Though, Ever Since,When, Whenever, Whether, Where, Wherever, While, Unless...

1. When the Church bell rings, all believers start kneeling.

2. If you miss the last flight, you will have to stay here for two more days.

3. Because the citizens evade taxes, the Government often raids their homes and offices.

4. Whenever I get an off from the work, I visit my parents.

5. Wherever the master goes, the dog accompanies him.

6. Although we have a written constitution, traditions and customs dominate the legal system.

7. After the Governor concluded her speech, the media approached her for the press meet.

Non-essential Modifiers

A Non-essential Modifier is not necessary to maintain the meaning of the sentence. It is separated from the noun with two commas.

1. Paulson’s wife, who is an attorney in New Jersey, has been nominated for the UN Peace Award.

2. The Eiffel Tower, which is in Paris, is named after the engineer Gustavo Eiffel, whose company built the tower.

3. The US President, whose tenure lasts for four years per term, enjoys the veto power over the decisions of the US Congress.

4. The Taj Mahal, which is in Agra, is called the "Symbol of Love".

5. Greenland, where much of the land surface is covered in ice, is the world's largest island.


An appositive is a grammatical structure in which two elements, usually nouns or noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element identifying the other differently.

The two elements are said to be in apposition. An appositive generally agrees with its noun in Gender and Number when it can.

In the following example, the noun phrase “a doctor by profession” identifies the element “My mother”. Thus, the two elements- “My mother” and “a doctor by profession” are in apposition.

My mother, a doctor by profession, manages our businesses.

Essential, Defining or restrictive Appositives

A restrictive appositive is necessary to maintain the meaning of the sentence. It is not separated from the noun with a comma.

1. The most popular feature film Gladiator was released in the year 2000.

2. My brother Jacob served in the army for 11 years.

3. The term "corporate responsibility" indicates that a corporation has the responsibility towards its stakeholders, and society at large.

4. The former US President Jimmy Carter authored several works.

Essential, Defining or restrictive Appositives in Titles:

Senator Berne Sanders, President Trump, Singer Rihana, King Solomon, etc

Non-Essential, Non-Defining, or Non-restrictive Appositives

1. Salsa, a dance form, originated in Cuba and Puerto Rico.

2. London, the capital city of England, is the largest metropolitan economy in the United Kingdom.

3.14 February, Valentine's Day, is celebrated by people to express affection by sending greetings with messages of love.

4. The Bible, the Holy book of Christians, has been translated into over 3300 languages.

5. The banana, an edible fruit, is the best source of nutrient potassium.

Appositives as the introductory phrases before the noun

1. Brave and stubborn, the soldiers fought till the end.

2. Rich and poor, all people voted for the new Party.

3. Small, medium and large, all sizes are available.

Adjectives as appositives

We wish to see the talented and gorgeous Emma Watson. (“talented and gorgeous” used as ordinary adjective)

We wish to see Emma Watson, the talented and gorgeous. . (“Talented and gorgeous” used as ordinary appositives)

1. The trees, forlorn and bare, sigh on.

2. All people, rich and poor, voted for the new Party.

3. Alexander, brave, strong and great, conquered the world.

The soldiers, brave and stubborn, fought till the end.

Essential Modifiers:

1. People who exercise regularly remain healthy and fit.

2. Cities which have good infrastructure develop faster.

3. My teacher who takes leaves frequently has left her job.

4. Countries where the density of population is too high experience high inflation.

5. The Government should support businesses that generate more employment opportunities.

6. My classmate whose leg was hurt during the soccer match has been selected for the national tournament.

Relative Clauses:

1. Last week, I visited the house where my grandfather was born.

2. Sharon spent all the money that she had made in the stock market.

3. The police caught the scammers who had deceived the bank manager.

4. The Judge whom the new Government appointed last year has resigned recently.

5. The employees whose demands the company has accepted have resumed their duties today.

6. In December 2004 when the Tsunami hit several coastal areas of South Asia over 225,000 people lost their lives.

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